Joint diseases are a common ailment for most patients after 40 years old and the vast majority of patients after 70 years old. The disease gets younger today joint disease occurs already in the 30s, as a result of a sedentary lifestyle and decreased activity.
Why do joints start to hurt?
The cause of pain in sore joints is irritation of the nerve endings. Due to the peculiarities of the structure, a large number of nerve endings and blood circulation, the joint quickly reacts to stimuli, which is a consequence of the appearance of unpleasant sensations. Diseases of various origins can irritate the nerve endings: inflammatory processes, the presence of toxins, the deposition of salts, autoimmune processes and a deviation in the functioning of other organs.
The soil for joint diseases can be:
- Degen proliferative, degenerative processes;
- genetic predisposition;
- age-related changes;
- excessive physical activity;
- playing sports;
- passive lifestyle;
- joint injuries and tendon stretching.
Also, the weather conditions of the region and muscle cramps can affect the development of the disease.
Joint inflammation or arthralgia can be the result of tumours, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, influenza or acute respiratory infections, pathologies of the pelvic organs, and blood diseases. These are some of the prerequisites for increasing inflammation of bones and joints. To make an accurate diagnosis, you must consult a doctor. Self-medication in this case can exacerbate the situation. Only the correct diagnosis and treatment can restore ease of movement and overcome the ailment.
Also, an indirect cause of arthralgia may be the intake of certain medications. At the end of the course of taking medication, irritation of the nerve endings disappears, and the person again feels healthy.
Features of the occurrence of pain in the joints
Depending on the place of localization, the time of day, and a number of other features, the nature of the manifestation of pain also changes.
The first and most extensive group – by time of manifestation:
- Mechanical – appear at the end of the day after work and stress on the joints. The pain goes away after rest.
- Night – unpleasant sensations appear during sleep or rest, when the body is immobilized and blood circulation slows down. Because of this, fluid stagnation in the joints occurs. Also, without movement, the joints go into rest mode, this is another reason for the appearance of pain.
- Reflected – in this case, the reason lies in the disease of the internal organs.
- Starting – arise after rest or sitting, when a person starts moving again. As soon as the blood flow normalizes and the muscles warm up, this pain goes away.
Diseases also have a direct effect on the course of the disease, for example, Bechterov’s disease is characterized by night attacks; causing the tons inflammation in the joints infections due to this discomfort appear in different joints at a time.
There is also a division according to the nature of the damage:
- Inflammatory – the pathogen becomes an infection, autoimmune diseases, allergic reactions. The main symptom of inflammation is fever, swelling, redness of the area around the affected joint.
- Non – inflammatory – if the signs described above are not observed, joint problems are also referred to this group.
Also, a doctor comes to the aid of the classification of the vastness of progression. In accordance with the development of the disease may be affected by one or a group of joints to five joints and more.
Given the extensive classification and various causes of joint pain and the appearance of an ailment, it is imperative to consult a specialist and undergo a series of tests to accurately diagnose the cause and prescribe competent treatment.
For joint pain, you need to contact not only a surgeon and orthopaedist, but also a cardiologist, traumatologist and rheumatologist. Each of the specialists will conduct the necessary diagnostics and prescribe treatment based on the results of the tests.
What diagnosis is necessary for the patient
For the nature of the survey is responsible physician, but there are common techniques, which, if changed in a particular case. The diagnostic process itself consists of a number of stages:
- It is necessary to determine the cause of pain, it may be associated with disseminated infection, with fighting in hormone levels, injury and a problem with the stomach.
- The doctor conducts inspection of the joints and skin in the presence of swelling, measures the temperature (T).
- Conversation with the patient to accurately establish the origin of the pain and its manifestations.
- Blood biochemistry and the development of other inflammatory processes.
- X-ray appointment, which enables IT to assess the state of the joints: relief, changes on the surface, the presence of defects, dislocations and osteoporosis.
- Ultrasound and MRI will help determine the density of bone and cartilage
After passing all tests, the treating physician obtains an overall picture, to additionally may be required immunological studies, if the establishment of the diagnosis is complicated.
Arthritis Treatment Steps
The further steps of the treatment depend on the diagnosis. It affects the selection of drugs, in particular using medications anti-inflammatory, vasodilators, muscle relaxants , and various hormones. With steroid hormones are assigned to the case, if this technique does not give positive results. In addition to drugs to improve joint function and reduce pain, ointments, creams, and various injections are used.
In serious situations that are not amenable to medical treatment, surgical intervention is necessary. It is an important stage, which requires a competent approach. In some cases, specialists may prescribe shock wave therapy and other physiotherapeutic methods. These include:
- Phonophoresis – during therapy, along with ultrasound, the doctor uses drugs, which increases the effectiveness of the entire procedure.
- Miostimulation – special training in muscle relaxation helps to reduce pain, eliminate swelling and minimize stress on the joint.
Also, the doctor can prescribe massage and various rehabilitation methods.