Worms or helminths belong to the category of parasites and worms living in the body of humans and animals. There are many types of helminths in the world, but able to live in the human body only 3 groups. According to doctors, every third a resident of planet Earth is infected with worms.
The causes of parasitic organisms are diverse: from non-compliance hygiene rules, until close contact with animals and the use of poorly processed vegetables. Understanding the delicacy of the problem, it is important when detecting unpleasant guests do not self-medicate, but immediately consult a specialist who will appoint drug treatment.
Types of helminths
Scientists distinguish three species that live in the human body:
- Nematodes (round helminths): pinworm, whipworm.
- Tape (cestodes): tapeworms, tapeworms, echinococcus.
- Fluke parasites or trematodes.
Only when passing tests can you determine what type of worms hit the body and begin to parasitize.
Regardless of the characteristics of helminths, the causes of appearance do not change. First of all, this concerns a violation of hygiene standards, as well as other reasons that affect the appearance of worms in adults and children.
Causes of worm infection
Larvae and eggs of worms can penetrate the human body, provoking helminthiasis.
There are a number of reasons why such infections occur:
- Failure to observe basic hygiene rules – after visiting public places, toilets, a person does not wash his hands, which increases the likelihood of catching parasites.
- The habit of chewing on a pen, pencil, nails, sucking your fingers and pulling other items not intended for this into your mouth. It is for this reason that worms are often found in babies who want to try everything for nothing.
- There is an animal in the house, which often happens on the street. Larvae and eggs of worms can be on dog or cat hair, on their paws after visiting open spaces.
- You can become infected with worms after poorly handling dirty fruits and vegetables, as well as berries and greens that were bought in the market or plucked in your own garden.
- Poorly fried or raw meat and fish are another common cause. It is important to conduct thorough heat treatment so as not to pick up worms, in particular pork tapeworms and bovine tapeworms.
- Worm infection occurs in a house where there is no regular cleaning, floors are not washed, and people walk in shoes around the apartment after a walk.
- The transmission of worms is possible in an everyday way, if you eat and drink from the dishes of an infected person.
For the reasons described above, it becomes clear that the appearance of parasites is associated with hygiene in adults and children. In order not to fall into the risk zone, it is important to conduct heat treatment of food and monitor cleanliness in the house, wash your hands thoroughly after the street and rinse before each meal.
Symptoms of helminths
Helminth diseases occur in different ways, but there are a number of unifying symptoms that indicate that the body is not in order and it is time to turn to a specialist.
- Fatigue and general weakness
- Increase and decrease in appetite
- Sharp and severe abdominal pain
- Unreasonable vomiting and frequent nausea
- Diarrhea and constipation
- Inflammation of the lymph nodes
- General increase in temperature
- Itching in the anus
- Pain in the joints and muscles
- Teeth grinding in a dream
- The presence of worms in the feces
- Asthma attacks
- Redness and rash on the skin
After the onset of the first symptoms, it is necessary to consult an infectious disease specialist, paediatrician or therapist for a diagnosis.
There are two stages of the spread of worms: acute and chronic. The acute phase of infection lasts from 3 to 7 weeks and begins immediately after the entry of parasites into the body. The main symptom of this stage is a severe allergy to the presence of an extraneous organism. Within two months, the acute phase is transformed into a chronic one. The manifestation of a chronic disease depends on the type of worms.
Helminthiasis treatment methods
An adult patient needs to visit a therapist, and a child needs a paediatrician. Understanding the delicacy of the situation, still do not trust advertising and buy drugs without consulting a doctor.
First of all, the medicine that is used to treat helminths has a severe effect on the body. In this case, it is necessary an integrated approach, so as not to harm other organs, but to neutralize parasitic organisms.
When worms are detected, it is important to undergo an examination of the whole family, since people who are constantly in contact with each other are at risk. In medical practice it is known that if someone in the family became infected with helminths, most likely, after a while everyone will be affected.
In addition to drugs, the doctor can prescribe enzymes to improve digestion and vitamins. It is important to avoid excessive eating sweet and starchy foods, these foods provide extra mail for parasitism.
If an animal lives in an apartment or in a private house, which regularly happens on the street, it is necessary to conduct anthelmintic therapy twice a year. Otherwise in case, all treatment attempts are unsuccessful, and infection will occur again and again.
What drugs are used to treat helminths
There are different classification drugs that are aimed at solving a particular problem. In the treatment of worms, the following drugs are used:
- Anthelmintic – they are aimed at combating parasites.
- Antihistamines – are used to minimize allergic reactions when mass death of parasites begins.
- Hepatoprotectors – designed to protect the liver when taking antibiotics and other drugs that affect this organ.
- Prebiotics – prescribed to normalize the gastrointestinal tract after taking antibiotics.
- Enterosorbents – remove toxic substances and other organisms that parasites reserve.
- Folic acid, vitamin B12, and iron supplements — they help with anaemia.
- The dosage and duration of treatment are determined by the doctor, so it is important not to self-medicate, but immediately seek help from specialists.
There are many tips from traditional medicine, one of which is to use dried pumpkin seeds. Of course, adults understand that it is impossible to hope for such techniques. In addition, if you fully trust unconventional practices, you can start the disease and get a number of complications.
Parasites can penetrate the gallbladder and pancreas, subsequently this will lead to a decrease in haemoglobin level and further consequences. Therefore, with any diseases should not experiment and use unproven methods, but immediately go to the hospital and pass the necessary tests.
The longer you put off visiting a specialist, the faster helminths multiply, causing an infectious disease.
In order to protect yourself from infection with helminths, it is necessary to observe personal hygiene and carry out preventive measures:
- Wash hands after visiting the street, public transport, toilets. Even being in the apartment before eating, you need to rinse your hands running water.
- Thoroughly wash fruits, vegetables, and herbs. As a supplement, after a normal washing, products can be rinsed with boiling water.
- Eggs, meat, fish and seafood need careful heat treatment. Eggs and larvae of the worms can be preserved in the under-cooked fish, as well as in meat, so fry foods well before eating.
- Do not drink water from unknown sources.
- Each member of the family should have personal towels and dishes.
Adhering to simple rules and maintaining cleanliness, you are not threatened by infection with worms.